Formatting & Formal Elements
Unless your teacher specifies otherwise, the following guidelines should be followed in preparing, writing, and printing your work. Always use a computer and word-processing software, and print your work out on standard format (DIN A4) paper, using only one side per page.
The main details to include on your title page appear as shown. Generally, you should use the same size and style of font as in your essay, although the title can be enlarged or emphasized if you wish
University of Heidelberg
Seminar Type (e.g. PS/HS): Seminar Name
Instructor: Instructor’s Name
Semester (e.g. WS/SS) and Year
Student’s E-Mail Address
Student’s field, major/minor: Study Semester
For a Bachelor's thesis, simply replace Seminar Type (e.g. PS/HS): Seminar Name with 'Bachelor's Thesis'.
Table of Contents
You should include a Table of Contents page (after the title page) to indicate the relevant chapters and sections into which your paper is divided. The Table of Contents should correspond to all of the sections of your paper and should have a consistent format (e.g., chapters/sections on the left and corresponding page numbers on the right). You should also include the Antiplagiatserklärung (see Honor Pledge), the Works Cited/References/Bibliography page and any appendices as headings in your Table of Contents. Please note that the title page, although it is not numbered, counts as page 1.
Table of Contents
2. Narrative Structure
2.1 Omniscience vs. Limited Narration
2.2 Mechanisms of Authorization
3. The Realisation of Memory through Narrative Technique
3.1 Primal Scenes and Sexuality
3.2 Shame and Internalization
3.3 Communal Bonding and Memory
Some points to remember about the Table of Contents and chapter/section headings:
- The main chapter headings should correspond sensibly to the main themes and, of course, to the central argument or thesis of your paper. In fact, as your argument shapes the flow of your paper, it often shapes the chapter headings, as well.
- A linguistic paper about an emipirical study you undertook may use standard chapters (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion). The subchapter titles reference your specific research topic.
- Chapter headings should be brief, to the point, and relevant. Avoid long headings or extraneous material; a few words should suffice.
- Themes or elements that go together in the structure of your paper should be grouped together under one chapter heading, and further divisions can be made into subchapters/-arguments and sub-points as follows:
- Subchapter/Unterkapitel, etc.
- In general, sub-sections (Untergliederungen) only make sense if you wish to differentiate at least two themes, elements, or points in a particular main section (Oberkategorie).
- A sub-section of any kind should not be identical to the main section of which it is a part, and you should avoid redundancy in subsequent headings (e.g., 1. Narrative structure; then 1.1 Narrative structure in Atonement; then 1.1.1 Narrative structure in Part One of Atonement - this is not what you should do!)
- Sections and sub-sections in your paper should, in general, never be shorter than about half a page of text. Do not follow a section heading with a sub-section heading; you need to write at least a paragraph explaining the reason you have chosen to write sub-sections. If you find that your structure has many sections and sub-sections that are very short, you should think about revising the structure.
- The Table of Contents should have consistent formatting. The departmental standard is to use Arabic numerals separated by periods: 1., 1.1, 1.1.1, 2., 2.1, 2.1.1 etc. You may also use MLA or Chicago style, both of which use Roman numerals for section headings, capital letters for sub-sections and lower-case letters for sub-sub-sections: I, A, a, II, A, a etc. Whichever style you choose, it must be employed consistently.
Formatting the paper: Font, Paragraph, Layout/Schriftart, Absatz, Seitenlayout
- Font/Schrifttyp: Times New Roman
- Font size/Schriftgröße: 12 point
- Spacing/Zeilenabstand: 1.5
- Orientation/Textausrichtung: Justified/Blocksatz
- Indent/Einzug: all paragraphs except the first paragraph (including the first under every new heading):1.25cm. To get the correct indent, use the Tab key (→|).
- After periods/full stops or other punctuation, use only 1 space.
- Margins/Seitenränder: 3cm on all sides (Normal setting), unless the paper is to be bound (Zulas, Bachelor's theses), in which case the left margin should be set at 4cm.
- Page numbers/Seitenzahl: Insert on the lower right-hand corner of every page, with the first page number printed on the first page of your text (i.e., after the title page and contents page, which are pages 1 and 2 but are not numbered as such). Do not start your pagination at 0.
- For foreign language words/terms (i.e., foreign to whatever language you are writing in), use italics: Smith describes Italy during the Risorgimento.
- For occasional emphasis, you can also use italics, but it is advisable only to do so when absolutely necessary without rephrasing; do not use bold/Fett or underlining/Unterstreichen for emphasis.
- Book titles are always printed in italics, not underlined.
- Use double quotation marks ("xyz") for quotations and single quotation marks for further internal quotes ("She states that 'xyz' is important.")
- Do not use German-style quotation marks („ “) if you are writing in English.
- Single quotation marks on their own (sometimes called "scare quotes") can be used to indicate a concept or term (e.g., The notion of 'hybridity' is much debated) or to suggest skepticism (e.g.The fast-food chain's 'healthy choices' are only marginally lower in calories.)
- Block quotations/Blockzitate do not need quotation marks: simply indent the quotation 0.6cm on both sides (to do this, select the text, and under Paragraph/Absatz -> Indent/Einzug change Left/Right/Links/Rechts to the right setting), and change the spacing to single/1.0 spacing
- If the punctuation surrounding quotations is your own, it goes outside the quotation marks; e.g., if you want to finish a sentence of your own with a quotation taken from a longer original sentence, the punctuation has to stay outside the quotation and behind the brackets indicating the source.
Example I: This illustrates the fact that, as Forster maintains, "Hacking considers science to be socially constructed" (15).
Example II: Is it so important that, as Forster maintains, "Hacking considers science to be socially constructed" (15)?
- If the punctuation is part of the original source from which you are quoting, it goes within the quotation marks.
Example I: Hacking asks, "Was Darwin's discovery of natural selection his own?" (56)
Example II: In Forster's opinion, this goes to prove that Hacking "pays close attention to the ways in which science is socially constructed." (36)
- Remember that you choose where to begin and end your quotation, so if the original punctuation does not serve your purposes, end your quote before it.
- The style outlined above is consistent with MLA (Modern Languages Association) style but other style guides (including Chicago Author-Date) have different rules. In most cases, when instructors ask you to use a particular style, they are referring only to the citation style, not to the punctuation conventions in the text. When in doubt, ask your instructor and consult the appropriate reference work.
- Commas are needed after certain abbreviations like e.g., i.e., etc., and ibid., unless they come at the end of a sentence, like this: etc.
- Dashes replace existing punctuation; a comma or semi-colon may not follow a dash.
- For headings and sub-headings, use bold or small caps/Kapitälchen or both.
Letzte Änderung: Föhr am 09.August 2015
Verantwortlich: Lusin, Föhr